Resources for: A New Neurofunctional Approach to the Treatment of Amblyopia and Strabismus
When a link or .pdf to the article was available, it was attached. If not, a more detailed reference was listed.
- Birnbaum MH , Koslowe K , Sanet R American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics [01 May 1977, 54(5):269-275]
- Occlusion for amblyopia: A comprehensive survey of outcome: F Hiscox, N Strong, J R Thompson, C Minshull & G Woodruff in Eye volume 6, pages300–304 (1992)
- Elbow splinting as a method to increase patching compliance in amblyopia therapy
- Why is compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia so hard? A qualitative study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16531452
- Patching may be strengthening rather than reducing the binocular imbalance that characterize amblyopia: Binocular Plasticity in Adults
- Under-correction of hyperopia reduces risk of becoming strabismic: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8776448
- Refractive error change and vision improvement: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0175780
- Awan, M & Proudlock, Frank & Grosvenor, D & Choudhuri, I & Sarvanananthan, N & Gottlob, Irene. (2009). An audit of the outcome of amblyopia treatment: A retrospective analysis of 322 children. The British journal of ophthalmology. 94. 1007-11. 10.1136/bjo.2008.154674.
- https://www.cell.com/trends/neurosciences/fulltext/S0166-2236(00)01967-6 Environmental complexity stimulates visual cortex neurogenesis.
- Duffy, F. H., Snodgrass, S. R.: Bicuculline reversal of deprivation amblyopia in the cat. Nature 260, 256-257 (1976).
- https://www.nyas.org/events/2007/plasticity-of-sensory-systems/ “Alleviating neural inhibition in adulthood with drugs or training paradigms may unmask the full capacity for lifelong learning”
- Birch-Amblyopia-and-Binocular-Vision “Unless the binocular dysfunction is treated, abnormal binocular vision may result in residual amblyopia, and may trigger recurrence of amblyopia”
- Binocular Vision in Amblyopia: Hess Binocular Vision in amblyopia
- User’s Guide to the Brain: Dr. John Ratey
- Franz and Sherman: Amblyopia-Therapy-Rationale-for-Refractive-Correction-Occlusion-VT
- Greenwald: Brock A Binocular Approach to Amblyopia Therapy brock_-_a_binoc_approach_to_amblyopia-therapy-Greenwald
- “The anatomical changes that we find in the eye muscles are minimal and only in rare instances are they of any importance in the total picture” https://visionhelp.wordpress.com/2012/04/04/a-ruede-re-awakening/
- ELISSS Study: Early vs. Late Infantile Strabismus Surgery Study. Note: At age six, 13.5% of the early vs. 3.9% of the late group recognized the Titmus Housefly; 3.0% of the early and 3.9% of the late group had stereopsis beyond Titmus Housefly. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16361188
- Reoperation rates were between 60% and 80% for children first operated around age 1 and approximately 25% for children operated around age 4: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20843185
- “It has not been possible to resolve the controversies regarding type of surgery, non-surgical intervention, and the optimal timing” The Cocharan Collaboration https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15674970
- Strabismus Surgery and its complications: https://www.springer.com/us/book/9783540327042
- The_Prevalence_of_Reoperation_and_Relate d Risk Infantile Esotropia: As can be seen in the decision tree, the most appropriate age for the first operation is 37 months, if a minimum number of operations and achieving gross stereopsis inpatients older than 5 years old is desired.
- Pilar Vegara: Crossed and Lazy Eyes (I was unable to find this on Amazon Books) It is currently available here – https://www.oepf.org/product/643
Title: A New Neurofunctional Approach to the Treatment of Amblyopia and Strabismus
Registration Link: https://www.regonline.com/registration/checkin.aspx?eventId=2563295
This 2-day course will provide attendees with an understanding of amblyopia and strabismus including eccentric fixation and anomalous correspondence and effective evaluation techniques to determine the prognosis in amblyopia, exotropia and esotropia. The course will provide an overview of myths and misconceptions regarding amblyopia and strabismus and review scientific studies on the underlying cause of amblyopia and strabismus and treatment options including patching, surgery and optometric vision therapy. This course will conclude with easy-to-follow, sequential and effective vision therapy treatment procedures for amblyopia, exotropia, and esotropia.
Dates: October 11-13, 2019
Location: Barclay Lodge, YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado
This event is held next to Rocky Mountain National Park. The closest airport is Denver International Airport. I recommend renting a car for the 2 hr(ish) drive. Fastest route takes the E-470 Toll Road. If you have more time, take Pena to 36 and visit Pearl Street in Boulder, CO for lunch on your way up. There are also several restaurants in the City of Estes Park, Colorado. Even more time? visit the National Park for a hike or scenic drive. Our event starts with dinner at 5 pm at the Barclay lodge. YMCA of the Rockies
50th Annual Colorado Vision Training Conference
ROBERT B. SANET, O.D., F.C.O.V.D.
Dr. Robert B. Sanet graduated with honors from the Southern California College of Optometry. He has served as President of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Chair of the A.O.A. Sports Vision Section, Board of Directors of the Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association, International Clinical Director of the Special Olympics Opening Eyes Program, Staff Optometrist San Diego Rehabilitation Institute at Alvarado Hospital, Consultant to the Centro de Optometria International in Madrid, Consultant to the Domus Nova Hospital in Ravenna and Adjunct Associate Professor at the Southern California College of Optometry.
Dr. Sanet has worked with amateur and professional athletes including the USA Men’s and Women’s Olympic Volleyball teams, San Diego Chargers, San Diego Padres, and LPGA Golf Professionals.
Dr. Sanet is the developer of the Sanet Vision Integrator, an automated state of the art touch-screen biofeedback Vision Therapy instrument that is beneficial for the rehabilitation of numerous types of visual problem and the enhancement of visual performance.
Dr. Sanet’s numerous awards include the San Diego County Optometrist of the Year, COVD G.N. German Award for Excellence in Children’s Vision Care, NORA Founders Award, COVD President’s Award, OEP Ralph Barstow International Award, Guiseppe Rico Award (Italy) for Excellence in Clinical Practice, International Optometrist of the Year- SIODEC (Spain), International Optometrist of the Year (Mexico), the OEP Armand Bastein International Award (OEP). Dr. Sanet was named as a Distinguished Practitioner in the multidisciplinary National Academies of Practice. He is one of only 100 Optometrists in the USA to have received this award.
Special event in 2019: Learn about the vision of Birds of Prey with Dr. Jennifer Redmond
A room in the Barclay Reunion lodge or the Wind River Lodge (through the registration site) is $300 for the weekend (either 2 double beds or a double bed and bunk bed set). You can also make your own arrangements off-site if you prefer to stay in a hotel instead of a rustic lodge. Catered meals & entertainment plan is $100 for the weekend per person. Registration: Vision therapist $325, Optometrist is $395. Lecture will be in the Wind River lodge this year. Meals and entertainment will be in the Barclay lodge (our normal cabin).
The Oregon COVD Study Group
See in 3D: Stereopsis
Everything you need to know about sensory and motor FUSION
Jen Simonson, OD, FCOVD
Boulder Valley Vision Therapy
Registration form: Oregon-study-group-invite
Location: The Hampton Inn, 730 SW Columbia Street, Bend, OR 97702. Phone (541) 385-5045.
Friday August 9th 1pm-5pm
Saturday August 10th 8am-noon, 1 pm-5 pm
Sunday August 11th 8am – 10 am, 10 am – noon Vivid Vision Training
Thank you Dr. Derron Lee for sharing this research list about strabismus (Crossed, turned, or wandering eyes):
- Altizer LB. The non-surgical treatment of exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1972;22:71-6.
- Bair DR. Symposium: Intermittent exotropia, diagnosis and incidence. Am Orthoptic J 1952;2:12-17.
- Birnbaum MH. Gross motor control and postural characteristics of strabismic patients. J Am Optom Assoc 1974;45:686-96.
- Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182.
- Caloroso EE. A sequential strategy for achieving functional binocularity in strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1998;59:378-87.
- Caloroso EE, Rouse MW. Clinical management of strabismus. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
- Chryssanthou G. Orthoptic management of intermittent exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1974;24:69-72.
- Coffey B, Wick B, Cotter S, et al. Treatment options in intermittent exotropia: A critical appraisal. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(5):386-404.
- Colorado Vision Consultants. Manual of esotropia therapy. Boulder: Colorado Vision Consultants, 1985.
- Cooper EL, Leyman IA. The management of intermittent exotropia: A comparison of the results of surgical and non-surgical treatment. Am Orthoptic J 1977;27:61-67.
- Cooper J. Intermittent exotropia of the divergence excess type. J Am Optom Assoc 1977;48:1261-1273.
- Cooper J, Medow N. Major Review: Intermittent exotropia: Basic and divergence excess type. Bin Vis Eye Muscle Surg 1993;8(3):185-216.
- Crone RA. Diplopia. New York: American Elsevier Publishing, 1973.
- Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV, Stark L. Saccadic intrusions in strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97:1673-9.
- Dale RT. Fundamentals of ocular motility and strabismus. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1982.
- Daum KM. Equal exodeviations: Characteristics and results of treatment with orthoptics. Aust J Optom 1984; 67(2):53-9.
- Day SH, Norcia AM. Infantile esotropia and the developing visual system. In: Greenwald MJ, eds. Pediatric ophthalmology clinics of North America. Philadelphia: WE Saunders, 1990;3:281-7.
- Duke-Elder S, Wybar K. Ocular motility and strabismus. In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of ophthalmology. Vol. 6. St. Louis: Mosby, 1973.
- Etting G. Strabismus therapy in private practice: Cure rates after three months of therapy. J Am Optom Assoc 1978; 49:1367-73.
- Flax N. The optometric treatment of intermittent divergent strabismus. Proceedings from the Eastern Seaboard V.T. Conference, Washington, DC, 1963, pp. 52-57.
- Flax N, Duckman RH. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1353-61.
- Flax N. Strabismus diagnosis and prognosis. In: Schor C, Ciuffreda KF, eds. Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butrerworths, 1983:579-95.
- Fletcher CF, Silverman SJ. Strabismus. Part I. A summary of 1110 consecutive cases. Am J Ophthalmol 1966;61:86-94.
- Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan, MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990.
- Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In: Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Clinton, 1963:197-228.
- Flynn JT. Strabismus: A neurodevelopmental approach: Nature’s experiment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
- Forrest EB. Treating infant esotropia: A case report. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1978;55 :463-465.
- Frantz KA. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess. J Am Optom Assoc 1990; 61(6):457-62.
- Garriott RS, Heyman CL, Rouse MW. Case Report: Role of optometric vision therapy for surgically treated strabismus patients. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74(4):179-84.
- Getz DJ. Strabismus and amblyopia. 2nd ed. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990.
- Gillan RU. An analysis of one hundred cases of strabismus treated orthoptically. Br J Ophthalmol 1945;29:420-8.
- Gnibor GP. Practical details in the orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1934;12:887-901.
- Goldrich SG. Optometric therapy of divergence excess strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:7-14.
- Graham PA. Epidemiology of strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:224-31.
- Greenwald I. Effective strabismus therapy. Duncan: Optometric Extension Program, 1979.
- Gillie JC, Lindsay J. Orthoptics: a discussion of binocular anomalies. London: The Hatton Press Ltd., 1969.
- Griffin JR. Binocular anomalies: procedures for vision therapy. 2nd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1982.
- Hoffman L, Cohen AH, Feuer G, et al. Effectiveness of optometric therapy for strabismus in a private practice. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1970;47:990-5.
- Kertesz AE, Kertesz J. Wide-field stimulation in strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:217-22.
- Krumholtz I, FitzGerald DE. Outcome indicators in a strabismic sample treated by vision therapy. J Behav Optom 1999; 10(6):143-6.
- Ludlam W. Management of infantile strabismus: research issues and standards of care. J Optom Vis Devel 1993:24:8-14.
- Ludlam WM. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1961;38:369-88.
- Ludlam WM, Kleinman BI. The long range results of orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1965;42:647-84.
- McGraw LG. Guiding strabismus therapy. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1991.
- Parks M. Oculomotility and strabismus. In: Duane TD,ed. Clinical ophthalmology. Hagerstown, MD: Harper & Row, 1979:1.
- Pickwell D. Binocular vision anomalies. London: Butterworths, 1984.
- Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.
- Press LJ. Challenging the Adaption. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.
- Press LJ. Topical review: strabismus. J Optom Vis Devel 1991;22:5-20.
- Press LJ. Amblyopia and Strabismus. In: Press LJ, Moore BD, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
- Sanfilippo S, Clahane AC. The effectiveness of orthoptics alone in selected cases of exodeviation: the immediate results and several years later. Am OrthoptJ 1970;20:104-17.
- Selenow A, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986; 57(2):132-40.
- Stark L, Ciuffreda KJ, Grisham D, Kenyon RV, Kiu J, Polse K. Accommodative dysfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1984;4:233-244
- Von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility: theory and management of strabismus. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 1990.
- Von Noorden GK. A reassessment of infantile esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105:1-10.
- Von Noorden GK, Helveston EM. Strabismus: a Decision Making Approach. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994.
- Wick B. Visual therapy for small angle esotropia. Am J Optom PhysiolOpt 1974;51:490-6.
- Wick B et al. Characteristics and prevalence of exotropia in clinic populations. Poster Program, American Academy of Optometry, Nashville, TN 1990.
- Ziegler D, Huff D, Rouse MW. Success in strabismus therapy: a literature review. J Am Optom Assoc 1982;53:979-83.
Building Blocks for Vision Development
Join us Sunday February 24, 2019 at Western University College of Optometry
At this year’s practicum, Dr. Simonson will share some of her most coveted pearls and strategies for young patients with special needs/developmentally delayed and physical handicaps. She will review normal versus delayed visual development from general motor concepts to development of visual perception and motor output for reproduction. You will gain insight into a systematic approach to vision therapy procedures for these young cases.
Binocular approaches to Amblyopia Treatment
1. MFBF activities (monocular fixation in a binocular field)
2. Binocular Therapy
3. Video games/iPad Apps/Computer games for amblyopia using dichotic stategies
4. LCD Glasses for treatment
Sunday August 23, 2015 at 1:30 p.m.
Fort Collin’s Family Eye Care: 373 W Drake Rd #3, Fort Collins, CO 80526, (970) 223-7150
BACKGROUND: Millard E. Van Orden developed a stereoscopically drawn visual pattern to gain insight on the patient’s binocular visual behavior pattern. This drawing records the projection in space of corresponding visual areas. When used for training, the patient receives feedback on the reorganization of visual space and stability of eye posture and binocular vision.
PROCEDURES: Van Orden drawings were completed with the Translucent Correct-eye-scope set at 0-0 and the Stereoscope for iPad set at 0 (optical far-point). The optics of the prismatic lens allow for a distance accommodative and vergence demand, but a physical distance of 20 centimeters. Targets included binocular vision space testing, far point – peripheral control, base-in projection stereo training, and base-out projection stereo training. Instructions were the same for both the traditional and digital drawings and followed the Van Orden Technique of Visual Rehabilitation Instruction Manual (Keystone View Company, www.keystoneview.com/download_manuals/6104_van_orden.pdf)
1. Ability to complete testing and training in more postures with the same device (standing or sitting, primary gaze or up/down gaze)
2. Ability to add images to electronic health records for performance documentation.
3. Ability to test visual performance when viewing a digital device (clinically noted to cause more visual complaints).
Thank you for submitting your abstract, ” Van Orden Training Utilizing the Stereoscope for iPad”, to the 2015 COVD annual meeting. The review process has concluded, and we are pleased to inform you that your abstract was accepted, to be presented as a poster. It is scheduled to be displayed on Thursday, April 16 and Friday April, 17 2015 on poster board #29.
The XIX International Academic Congress of Optometry Functional was held in Aguacalientes, Mexico during the first week of September. For more information, please visit: http://optomed.blogspot.com/2012/03/comof-consejo-mexicano-de-optometria.html
2. Vision training exercise information: /user-files/Vertical_Strabismus_Pearls.pdf
optometristas in Estados Unidos? 38,000
optometristas functional? 1,000-4,000 (best guess)
4. List of apps for both iPad and Android: http://www.bouldervt.com/news-and-events/New-News-Item,584678
Although Dr. Barry was cross-eyed since early infancy and had three eye muscle surgeries to straighten her eyes, she had “20/20” vision. This meant that she could see the letters on the eye chart that you are supposed to see from a distance of 20 feet. Everyone assumed that meant she had perfect vision. Yet, when she tried to read, the words appeared to her to move on the page.
Thus, she had trouble learning to read and had great difficulty with standardized tests. If it were not for heroic steps taken by her mother to help her learn to read, Dr. Barry would not have succeeded in school and in her career.
It wasn’t until Dr. Barry went through a program of optometric vision therapy as an adult that she understood why the words appeared to move on the page when she was in grade school. Even though her eyes looked straight, she had a binocular vision problem. Her eyes were not aligned properly, which means they didn’t point at the same letters on the page the way they are supposed to when she tried to read.
As students are going back to school across the U.S. the stakes are higher than ever. Standardized tests determine not only the students’ achievement, but the teachers’ and the schools’. Everyone is being graded. Yet, we are still using an archaic system to measure how well children see and telling them that their vision is fine. The standard school vision screening – reading a letter chart positioned 20 feet away with one eye at a time – does not examine how well a child can read at close range using the two eyes together.
It is Dr. Barry’s hope that by writing her book and sharing her story she can help millions of children.
Find out what you can do to ensure your child has all the visual skills required for academic success.
In honor of August being National Children’s Vision and Learning month, the College of Optometrists in Vision Development is sponsoring this FREE 30 minute interview with Dr. Barry on line, “School Crossings: A Neurobiologist’s View of How Our System Fails Children With Vision Problems.” This meeting is open to parents and educators across the U.S. as well as the media. It will be held on Thursday, August 26, 2010 at 9 pm, EDT.
About Susan R. Barry
Susan R. Barry received her Ph.D. in biology from Princeton University and is a professor of neurobiology in the Department of Biological Sciences at Mount Holyoke College. She speaks regularly to scientists, eye doctors, and educators on the topic of neuronal plasticity. She has been featured on NPR and in a New Yorker article by renowned neurologist Oliver Sacks entitled “Stereo Sue.” She and her husband have two grown children and live in South Hadley, Massachusetts.Visit Sue Barry’s personal website at www.stereosue.com.