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50th CVTC Research Article List 2019

Resources for: A New Neurofunctional Approach to the Treatment of Amblyopia and Strabismus

When a link or .pdf to the article was available, it was attached. If not, a more detailed reference was listed.

  1. Birnbaum MH , Koslowe K , Sanet R American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics [01 May 1977, 54(5):269-275]
  2. Occlusion for amblyopia: A comprehensive survey of outcome: F Hiscox, N Strong, J R Thompson, C Minshull & G Woodruff in Eye volume 6, pages300–304 (1992)
  3. Neuron-V48-Oct-2005-Neuroscience-Critical-Periods

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  2. Elbow splinting as a method to increase patching compliance in amblyopia therapy
  3. Why is compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia so hard? A qualitative study:
  4. Patching may be strengthening rather than reducing the binocular imbalance that characterize amblyopia: Binocular Plasticity in Adults
  5. Under-correction of hyperopia reduces risk of becoming strabismic:
  6. Refractive error change and vision improvement:
  7. Awan, M & Proudlock, Frank & Grosvenor, D & Choudhuri, I & Sarvanananthan, N & Gottlob, Irene. (2009). An audit of the outcome of amblyopia treatment: A retrospective analysis of 322 children. The British journal of ophthalmology. 94. 1007-11. 10.1136/bjo.2008.154674.

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  1. Environmental complexity stimulates visual cortex neurogenesis.
  2. Duffy, F. H., Snodgrass, S. R.: Bicuculline reversal of deprivation amblyopia in the cat. Nature 260, 256-257 (1976).
  3. “Alleviating neural inhibition in adulthood with drugs or training paradigms may unmask the full capacity for lifelong learning”
  4. Birch-Amblyopia-and-Binocular-Vision “Unless the binocular dysfunction is treated, abnormal binocular vision may result in residual amblyopia, and may trigger recurrence of amblyopia”
  6. Binocular Vision in Amblyopia: Hess Binocular Vision in amblyopia
  7. User’s Guide to the Brain: Dr. John Ratey
    users guide to the brain
  8. Franz and Sherman: Amblyopia-Therapy-Rationale-for-Refractive-Correction-Occlusion-VT
  9. Greenwald: Brock A Binocular Approach to Amblyopia Therapy brock_-_a_binoc_approach_to_amblyopia-therapy-Greenwald
  10. “The anatomical changes that we find in the eye muscles are minimal and only in rare instances are they of any importance in the total picture”
  11. ELISSS Study: Early vs. Late Infantile Strabismus Surgery Study. Note: At age six, 13.5% of the early vs. 3.9% of the late group recognized the Titmus Housefly; 3.0% of the early and 3.9% of the late group had stereopsis beyond Titmus Housefly.
  12. Reoperation rates were between 60% and 80% for children first operated around age 1 and approximately 25% for children operated around age 4:
  13. “It has not been possible to resolve the controversies regarding type of surgery, non-surgical intervention, and the optimal timing” The Cocharan Collaboration
  14. Strabismus Surgery and its complications:
  16. The_Prevalence_of_Reoperation_and_Relate d Risk Infantile Esotropia: As can be seen in the decision tree, the most appropriate age for the first operation is 37 months, if a minimum number of operations and achieving gross stereopsis inpatients older than 5 years old is desired.
  17. Pilar Vegara: Crossed and Lazy Eyes (I was unable to find this on Amazon Books) It is currently available here – crossed and lazy eyes
  18. Cook-Incomitant-Strabismus-JBO-2004

2018 Colorado Vision Training Conference

Optimal Vision Performance: Enhancing Visual Function from Development to Rehabilitation to High Level Athletic Skill

Friday September 21, 2018 – Sunday September 23, 2018

CVTC 2018 Brochure

Registration is now open for the 2018 CVTC featuring past-President of COVD Dr. Kara Heying! Twelve hours of CE offered in the gorgeous Rocky Mountains.

Register Here:

Breaking through Boundaries

Part 1 of the presentation will focus on the vision and learning testing strategies and therapeutic interventions specific to children with general binocular vision disorders, tracking delays, and visual abnormalities that are compounded due to other learning disabilities, autism, dyslexia and attention deficits. They will explore the early intervention protocols for the very young children in their practice that they utilize for establishing better visual development despite developmental delays, strabismus or risk of amblyopia. These protocols are coined “early intervention vision therapy” and delivered in a very specific manner for maximum outcome. Strabismus surgery co-management and professional opinions regarding their pre and post-operative therapeutic care will be discussed. In addition, the use of visual evoked potentials, exploration of yoked prism and use of tints for improved remediation and performance, and integration of nutrients and supplements will be explored. Coordination of care with clinical and educational psychologists, reading teachers, occupational therapists, counselors and chiropractors will be investigated.

Part 2 will focus on how we incorporate sports vision both in and outside of our office setting. We have been fortunate to have extensive experience with D1 and D3 level athletic programs in our state, and will give you a glimpse into how we deliver the very exciting performance work we do with these highly successful teams. More awareness for vision therapy is necessary when developing relationships with area colleges and universities, and we will share our strategies and triumphs in opening the minds of medical doctors, athletic trainers, coaches and student athletes. Conclusions on how the technology and tools available for sports vision are not a replacement for the knowledge of a developmentally trained optometrist and strategies for aligning yourself with more local programs will be discussed. We will also present a practice management plan for adding more sports vision work into your vision therapy practice, and help you create a template for empowering coaches as the first line of defense for undiagnosed vision problems. We recognize that sports vision is an enormous underutilized pathway to reducing the amount of undiagnosed vision problems in our country.

Part 3 encompasses our role in the multi-disciplinary care of the traumatic brain injured patient. As a busy primary care practice, we believe in fully educating our patients about the role the developmental optometrist has in the rehabilitation of these complex clinical cases. We will describe the pitfalls we encountered in developing such procedures and the current success of our baseline testing program called PEP (Prepare, Equip and Protect). This elective fee for service add-on is offered by all our doctors to all our patients during their comprehensive vision examination. Additionally we will discuss our clinical and therapeutic methods for sorting out the visual and vestibular etiologies for dizziness. We will incorporate hands-on demonstrations, review specific post-concussion and ABI cases and share our best referral successes for treating additional vestibular, medical or cervical needs of these patients.

Bridging science and common sense for better outcomes, improved clinical care, development of professional relationships and patient experience.

Dr. Kara Heying graduated from the Illinois College of Optometry in 1998. Upon graduating, Dr. Heying received highest honors in the area of pediatric clinical training and also received the Cribb Scholarship for exemplary patient care performance. After graduating, she returned to her home town of Cedar Rapids, IA and began in private practice. Building upon her interest in children’s eyecare, she developed an emphasis within the private practice she joined including children’s vision care and vision therapy.

Today, she is a fellowship trained Developmental Optometrist with the College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD), serves as a past president of COVD, and consults on VT related services through the Williams Consulting Group. She is married and has 3 daughters.

Featured Lecturer:

Dr. Kara Heying

Cedar Rapids Eye Care

4207 Glass Rd NE

Cedar Rapids, IA 52402



Colorado Vision Training Conference Links

Primitive Reflexes and Sports Vision: Visual Foundations to Peak Performance

1. The Vision Development Team website

2. Institute for Neuro-Physiological Psychology “INPP”:

Sally Goddard Blythe:

3. The listening Program “TLP” –

4. Integrated Listening Systems “ILS” –

5. Masgutova Neurosensorimotor Reflex Integration “MNRI” –

6. The Relationship Between Retained Primitive Reflexes and Visual Skill Deficit:


Day 2:

7. Tripp Trapp Chair:

8. Agility Ladder:

Lots of great videos on you tube, example:

9. Romberg Balance Testing:

We observed that the time to failure decreased with increasing age across all sex and race/ethnicity categories. We found that once individuals went below a time to failure of 20 seconds, there was a significant greater than 3-fold increase in the odds of falling. In general, participants crossed the 20-second threshold at the age of 60 to 69 years.

10. One foot balance:

Age 3 – 2 seconds
Age 4 – 4-8 seconds
Age 5 – 8 seconds either foot
Age 6 – 20 seconds
Age 8 – 30 seconds

Pediatric Balance Scale

Adult Norms for one-leg standing balance:

11. The Ghost in my Brain by Clark Elliot

Ghost in my Brain

12. Reflex Screening Form

13. Reflex List

14. Stopping ADHD by O’Dell and Cook

Stopping ADHD

15. Oculo-Head Righting Reflex and Labyrinthine Head Righting Reflex example:

You-tube Chicken video: Chicken Head

16. Emotional Freedom Technique


17. Brain Dance Video example:

18. Emergent VT:

19. Fat Cat Vision therapy (perception):

20. No Drama Discipline

2014 08 04 NoDrama HC nospine thumb

21. Color-lined paper:


22. Handwriting without Tears Program

23. Gemiini Speech Program:

Brock String with Hula Hoop:

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Micro Brock String:

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Thanks for a GREAT Day!!

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Day 3:

24. Reflex Integration Program Review

25. Reflex Integration Advancement

26. Reflex Program Levels

2015 Colorado Vision Training Conference

Primitive Reflexes and Sports Vision: Visual Foundations to Peak Performance

This three day, twelve-hour course is designed to provide participants with hands on learning opportunities to explore the relationship between the developing sensory – motor systems and the emergence of visual motor and visual perceptual functions. Primitive reflex assessment techniques, live demonstrations, and video analysis will be used to teach medically accepted assessment methods and effective exercises. Participants will have the opportunity to engage in reflex and sports vision activities aimed at facilitating optimal levels of visual performance.


Dr. Andrich is a certified fellow of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development. He is a graduate of The Ohio State University College of Optometry in Columbus, Ohio. He has been in private practice with his wife Patti Andrich, OTR/L for over twelve years in North Royalton, Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland.

Dr. Andrich uses a functional, developmental approach to treat visual dysfunctions. He has advanced training in evaluating and treating vision disorders of the pediatric, special needs, and adult populations. Dr. Andrich is nationally known for his success working with athletes of all levels.

Dr. Andrich lectures on the topics of infant/pediatric vision, learning-related vision disorders, and sports vision. He has been a guest speaker for the national television program, “American Medical Review” and has been featured by the Cleveland Plain Dealer highlighting sports vision training. Dr. Andrich has the distinction of having one of his most famous cases being featured on the Paul Harvey Radio Program.

Dr. Andrich is a past president of The Cleveland Optometric Association and is the InfantSEE coordinator for Northeast Ohio. He has staff privileges at University Hospitals Parma Medical Center. Dr. Andrich is a clinical associate of The Optometric Extension Program and a Fellow of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development, where he serves on the International Examination and Certification Board. Dr. Andrich is committed to improving visual performance through advanced vision therapy.



Patti Andrich, MA, OTR/L,COVT, INPP is an occupational therapist known for her success in treating individuals with difficulties in visual-motor, visual-perceptual, auditory perception and vestibular functioning. Patti received her Master degree from The Ohio State University College of Education and her occupational therapy degree from the Cleveland State University Department of Health Sciences. Additionally, Patti holds certification in auditory processing using The Listening Program with Bone Conduction from Advanced Brain Technologies and is certified and licensed through INPP in primitive reflex integration techniques; having studied in the UK under the direction of Sally Goddard at the Institute of Neurological Physiological Psychology (INPP).

Patti is a certified vision therapist, member of The Optometric Extension Program as well as the College of Optometrists in Vision Development, the recipient of several honors and awards and has been a guest speaker for local, state, national and international conferences.

YMCA of the Rockies – Estes Park, Colorado (970) 586-3341

Located 90 minutes from Denver and adjacent to the Rocky Mountain National Park, the YMCA of the Rockies is an ideal setting for the 45th Annual Colorado Vision Training Conference.
Cool mountain breezes blend with the brilliant sunshine and an incredibly blue sky to create a perfect time for adventure, relationships and education. You’ll enjoy a rustic environment with lodge-style accommodations.
YMCA of the Rockies
Estes Park, ColoradoSpeakers: Alex and Patti Andrich
Office: Sensory Focus


2013 Colorado Vision Training Conference

Vision and Patients with Atypical Neuro-development: Pearls of Optometry's Contribution to Solving the Puzzle

 Pearls of:

– How to perform a visual evaluation with non-neurotypical patients including considerations for office set-up and appropriate examination equipment.

– Understanding developmental considerations regardless of age.

– Developing a hierarchical framework to assess current developmental stage of non-neurotypical patients.

– Setting accurate expectations to skill level achievable in this patient population.

– Collaborating on creative ideas for use in vision therapy and what to avoid when working with this patient population.

– Assessing performance through progress evaluation (subjective and objective findings) and the therapy process.


2008 Colorado Vision Training Conference

Barbara, Gail, Dr. Dowis, Dr. Cain and Dr. Simonson joined 75 other optometrists, vision therapists, and occupational therapists at the 2008 Colorado Vision Training Conference at the YMCA of the Rockies. Our speaker was Dr. Bob Sanet, a practitioner from San Diego, CA. Dr. Sanet spoke on neurology, brain anatomy and function, the visual pathways through the brain, the latest research on brain plasticity and the scientific basis of vision therapy. He also demonstrated visual testing techniques and vision therapy procedures. We’re very excited to bring back and apply our new knowledge!


Staff to attend the Colorado Vision Training Conference

September, 12-14,2008
39th Annual Colorado Vision Training Conference
YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado
TOPIC: A Potpourri of Optometry: Neurology of the Visual System, Evaluation
Techniques and Vision Therapy
SPEAKER: Robert B. Sanet, O.D., FCOVD
CONTACT: George Hertneky, OD at (970) 842-5166