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50th CVTC Research Article List 2019

Resources for: A New Neurofunctional Approach to the Treatment of Amblyopia and Strabismus

When a link or .pdf to the article was available, it was attached. If not, a more detailed reference was listed.

  1. Birnbaum MH , Koslowe K , Sanet R American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics [01 May 1977, 54(5):269-275]
  2. Occlusion for amblyopia: A comprehensive survey of outcome: F Hiscox, N Strong, J R Thompson, C Minshull & G Woodruff in Eye volume 6, pages300–304 (1992)
  3. Neuron-V48-Oct-2005-Neuroscience-Critical-Periods

20191011 201435

  2. Elbow splinting as a method to increase patching compliance in amblyopia therapy
  3. Why is compliance with occlusion therapy for amblyopia so hard? A qualitative study:
  4. Patching may be strengthening rather than reducing the binocular imbalance that characterize amblyopia: Binocular Plasticity in Adults
  5. Under-correction of hyperopia reduces risk of becoming strabismic:
  6. Refractive error change and vision improvement:
  7. Awan, M & Proudlock, Frank & Grosvenor, D & Choudhuri, I & Sarvanananthan, N & Gottlob, Irene. (2009). An audit of the outcome of amblyopia treatment: A retrospective analysis of 322 children. The British journal of ophthalmology. 94. 1007-11. 10.1136/bjo.2008.154674.

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  1. Environmental complexity stimulates visual cortex neurogenesis.
  2. Duffy, F. H., Snodgrass, S. R.: Bicuculline reversal of deprivation amblyopia in the cat. Nature 260, 256-257 (1976).
  3. “Alleviating neural inhibition in adulthood with drugs or training paradigms may unmask the full capacity for lifelong learning”
  4. Birch-Amblyopia-and-Binocular-Vision “Unless the binocular dysfunction is treated, abnormal binocular vision may result in residual amblyopia, and may trigger recurrence of amblyopia”
  6. Binocular Vision in Amblyopia: Hess Binocular Vision in amblyopia
  7. User’s Guide to the Brain: Dr. John Ratey
    users guide to the brain
  8. Franz and Sherman: Amblyopia-Therapy-Rationale-for-Refractive-Correction-Occlusion-VT
  9. Greenwald: Brock A Binocular Approach to Amblyopia Therapy brock_-_a_binoc_approach_to_amblyopia-therapy-Greenwald
  10. “The anatomical changes that we find in the eye muscles are minimal and only in rare instances are they of any importance in the total picture”
  11. ELISSS Study: Early vs. Late Infantile Strabismus Surgery Study. Note: At age six, 13.5% of the early vs. 3.9% of the late group recognized the Titmus Housefly; 3.0% of the early and 3.9% of the late group had stereopsis beyond Titmus Housefly.
  12. Reoperation rates were between 60% and 80% for children first operated around age 1 and approximately 25% for children operated around age 4:
  13. “It has not been possible to resolve the controversies regarding type of surgery, non-surgical intervention, and the optimal timing” The Cocharan Collaboration
  14. Strabismus Surgery and its complications:
  16. The_Prevalence_of_Reoperation_and_Relate d Risk Infantile Esotropia: As can be seen in the decision tree, the most appropriate age for the first operation is 37 months, if a minimum number of operations and achieving gross stereopsis inpatients older than 5 years old is desired.
  17. Pilar Vegara: Crossed and Lazy Eyes (I was unable to find this on Amazon Books) It is currently available here – crossed and lazy eyes
  18. Cook-Incomitant-Strabismus-JBO-2004

2019 Colorado Vision Training Conference (CVTC)

Title: A New Neurofunctional Approach to the Treatment of Amblyopia and Strabismus

Registration Link:


Dr. Bob Sanet

This 2-day course will provide attendees with an understanding of amblyopia and strabismus including eccentric fixation and anomalous correspondence and effective evaluation techniques to determine the prognosis in amblyopia, exotropia and esotropia. The course will provide an overview of myths and misconceptions regarding amblyopia and strabismus and review scientific studies on the underlying cause of amblyopia and strabismus and treatment options including patching, surgery and optometric vision therapy. This course will conclude with easy-to-follow, sequential and effective vision therapy treatment procedures for amblyopia, exotropia, and esotropia.

Dates: October 11-13, 2019

Location: Barclay Lodge, YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado



This event is held next to Rocky Mountain National Park. The closest airport is Denver International Airport. I recommend renting a car for the 2 hr(ish) drive. Fastest route takes the E-470 Toll Road. If you have more time, take Pena to 36 and visit Pearl Street in Boulder, CO for lunch on your way up. There are also several restaurants in the City of Estes Park, Colorado. Even more time? visit the National Park for a hike or scenic drive. Our event starts with dinner at 5 pm at the Barclay lodge. YMCA of the Rockies

50th Annual Colorado Vision Training Conference


Bob Pub photo


Dr. Robert B. Sanet graduated with honors from the Southern California College of Optometry. He has served as President of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development, Chair of the A.O.A. Sports Vision Section, Board of Directors of the Neuro-Optometric Rehabilitation Association, International Clinical Director of the Special Olympics Opening Eyes Program, Staff Optometrist San Diego Rehabilitation Institute at Alvarado Hospital, Consultant to the Centro de Optometria International in Madrid, Consultant to the Domus Nova Hospital in Ravenna and Adjunct Associate Professor at the Southern California College of Optometry.

Dr. Sanet has worked with amateur and professional athletes including the USA Men’s and Women’s Olympic Volleyball teams, San Diego Chargers, San Diego Padres, and LPGA Golf Professionals.

Dr. Sanet is the developer of the Sanet Vision Integrator, an automated state of the art touch-screen biofeedback Vision Therapy instrument that is beneficial for the rehabilitation of numerous types of visual problem and the enhancement of visual performance.

Dr. Sanet’s numerous awards include the San Diego County Optometrist of the Year, COVD G.N. German Award for Excellence in Children’s Vision Care, NORA Founders Award, COVD President’s Award, OEP Ralph Barstow International Award, Guiseppe Rico Award (Italy) for Excellence in Clinical Practice, International Optometrist of the Year- SIODEC (Spain), International Optometrist of the Year (Mexico), the OEP Armand Bastein International Award (OEP). Dr. Sanet was named as a Distinguished Practitioner in the multidisciplinary National Academies of Practice. He is one of only 100 Optometrists in the USA to have received this award.



Registration Link

Special event in 2019: Learn about the vision of Birds of Prey with Dr. Jennifer Redmond

A room in the Barclay Reunion lodge or the Wind River Lodge (through the registration site) is $300 for the weekend (either 2 double beds or a double bed and bunk bed set). You can also make your own arrangements off-site if you prefer to stay in a hotel instead of a rustic lodge. Catered meals & entertainment plan is $100 for the weekend per person. Registration: Vision therapist $325, Optometrist is $395. Lecture will be in the Wind River lodge this year. Meals and entertainment will be in the Barclay lodge (our normal cabin).

Stereopsis Course for the Oregon Study Group

The Oregon COVD Study Group


017 BVVT round1

See in 3D: Stereopsis

Everything you need to know about sensory and motor FUSION


Jen Simonson, OD, FCOVD

Boulder Valley Vision Therapy

Registration form: Oregon-study-group-invite

Location: The Hampton Inn, 730 SW Columbia Street, Bend, OR 97702. Phone (541) 385-5045.

Lecture Schedule:

Friday August 9th 1pm-5pm
Saturday August 10th 8am-noon, 1 pm-5 pm
Sunday August 11th 8am – 10 am, 10 am – noon Vivid Vision Training

BVVT 2018 03 17 080

Vision training research: Amblyopia

Thank you Dr. Derron Lee for sharing this research list: Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)

  1. Amos J. Refractive Amblyopia. In: Amos J ed. Diagnosis and management in vision care. Boston: Butterworths, 1987:372.
  2. American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline: Care of the patient with amblyopia. St. Louis: American Optometric Association, 1994:22-3.
  3. Barber A. Amblyopia literature review. In: Barber A, ed. Vision therapist: amblyopia. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1994;34(4):1-16.
  4. Birnbaum MH, Koslowe K, Sanet R. Success in amblyopic therapy as a function of age. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1977;54:268-275.
  5. Bedell HE, Flom MC. Monocular spatial distortion in strabismic amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;20:26-8.
  6. Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182.
  7. Burian HM. Treatment of functional amblyopia. Sight-saving Rev 1971;41(2):69-81.
  8. Ciuffreda KJ. Visual system plasticity in human amblyopia. In: Hilfer SR, Sheffield JB, eds. Cell and developmental biology of the eye: development of order in the visual system. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986:211-44.
  9. Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Abnormal saccadic substitution during small amplitude pursuit tracking in amblyopic eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979;18:506-16.
  10. Ciuffreda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Different rates of functional recovery of eye movements during orthoptics treatment in an adult amblyope. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979; 18:213-9.
  11. Ciuffreda KJ, Levi DM, Selenow A. Amblyopia: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butterwortb-Heinemann, 1991:64.
  12. CohenAH. Monocular fixation in a binocular field. J Am Opt Assoc 1981,Oct;52(10):801-06.
  13. Cook DL. Optometric alternative to amblyopia occlusion therapy. J Optom Vis Dev 1995,June;26(2):71-75.Dell W. The epidemiology of amblyopia. Probl Optom 1991;3:195-207.
  14. Eibschitz N, Friedman Z, Neuman E. Comparative results of amblyopia treatment. Metab Ophthalmol 1978;2:111-2.
  15. Eiden SB. Vision therapy helps adult amblyopes. Rev Optom 1982,Sept;119(9):62.
  16. Flax N. Common sense management of amblyopia: Amblyopes are people, not eyes. J Optom Vis Dev 1995,June;26(2)53-56.
  17. Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW, eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990;219.
  18. Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1963;210-212
  19. Flom MC, Kirschen DG, Bedell HE. Control of unsteady, eccentric fixation in amblyopic eyes by auditory feedback of eye position. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:1371-91.
  20. Flom MC, Neumaier RW. Prevalence of amblyopia. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1966;73:732-51.
  21. Flom MC, Wick B. A model for treating binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990:257.
  22. Flynn JT, Cassady JC. Current trends in amblyopia therapy. Ophthalmology 1978;85:428-450.
  23. Francois J, James M. Comparative study of amblyopic treatment. Am Orthopt J 1955;5:61-4.
  24. Garcia RP, Richman JE. Stereopsis in an amblyopic small angle esotrope. J Am Optom Assoc 1985;56:400-404.
  25. Garzia, RP. The efficacy of visual training in amblyopia: A literature review. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:393-404.
  26. Getz DG. Strabismus and amblyopia. rev. ed, Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990.
  27. Girard LJ, Fletcher MC, Tomlinson E, et al. Results of pleoptic treatment of suppression amblyopia. Am Orthopt J 1962;12:12-31.
  28. Gortz H. The corrective treatment of amblyopia with eccentric fixation. Am J OphthalmoI 1960;49:1315-21.
  29. Greenwald I. Brock: A binocular approach to amblyopia therapy. J Optom Vis Dev 1995, June; 26(2):62-67.
  30. Gregersen E. Occlusion treatment of squint amblyopia in young adults. Acta Ophthalmol 1966;44:166-8.
  31. Haldi B, Mitchelson JE. Amblyopia therapy: Expected results from standard techniques. Am Orthopt J 1981;31:19-28.
  32. Ingram RM, Rogers S, Walker C. Occlusion and amblyopia. Br Orthopt J 1977;34:11-22.
  33. Jablonski M, Tomlinson E. A new look at pleoptics. Ophthalmology 1979;86:2112-4.
  34. Kupfer C. Treatment of amblyopia ex anopsia in adults. Am J Ophthalmol 1957;43:918-22.
  35. Lithander J, Sjöstrand J. Anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia in the age group 2 years and above: A prospective study of the results of treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 1991; 75:111-6.
  36. London R, Silver JL. Diagnosis of amblyopia: Emphasis on nonacuity factors. Problems in Optometry 1991;3:258-275.
  37. Mayweg S, Massie HH. A preliminary report of the more recent methods of treatment of amblyopia, especially when associated with eccentric fixation in cases of strabismus. Br. J Ophthalmol 1958;42:257-69.
  38. Nawratzki I. Treatment of amblyopia. Ir J Med Sci 1972; 8:1475-9.
  39. Oliver M, Neumann R, Chaimovitch Y, et al. Compliance and results of treatment for amblyopia in children more than 8 years old. Am J Ophthalmol 1986; 102:340-5.
  40. Peli E. Normal stereo acuity despite anisometropic amblyopia. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54:919-921.
  41. Porter EE. Treatment of amblyopia. Am Orthopt J 1962; 12:157.61.
  42. Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.
  43. Press LJ. Amblyopia. J Optom Vis Dev 1988;19:2-15.
  44. Press LJ. Amblyopia: A Microcosm of Visual Disorders. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.
  45. Press LJ. Amblyopia and strabismus. In: Press L, Moore B, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993:265-73.
  46. Press LJ. Topical review of the literature: amblyopia. J Optom Vis Devel 1988;19:2-15.
  47. Reinecke RD, Simons K. A new stereoscopic test for amblyopia screening. Am J Ophthalmol 1974;78:714.
  48. Ross E, Murray AL, Stead S. Prevalence of amblyopia in grade 1 school children in Saskatoon. Can J Public Health 1977; 68:491-3.
  49. Rutstein RP, Fuhr PS. Efficacy and stability of amblyopia therapy. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(10):747-54.
  50. Saulles H. Treatment of refractive amblyopia in adults. J Am Optom Assoc 1987; 58(12):959-60.
  51. Schapero M. Amblyopia. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1971.
  52. Schor C. A directional impairment of eye movement control in strabismus amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1975; 15:692-7.
  53. Schor CM, Flom MC. Eye position control and visual acuity in strabismus amblyopia. In: Lennerstrand G, Bach-y-Rita P, Collins CC, et al, eds. Basic mechanisms of ocular motility and their clinical manifestations. New York: Pergamon Press, 1975.
  54. Selenow A, Ciufredda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:132-40.
  55. Simmers AJ, Gray LS, McGraw PV, Winn B. Functional visual loss in amblyopia and the effect of occlusion therapy. Inv Ophthal Vis Sci 1999; 40(12):2859-71.
  56. Spitzer NC. Development, regeneration, and plasticity. In: Cohen MJ, Strumwasser F, eds. Comparative neurobiology: modes of communication in the nervous system. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985.
  57. Sullivan M. Results in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia. Orthopt J 1975:37-42.
  58. Von Noorden GK Occlusion therapy in amblyopia with eccentric fixation, Arch Ophthalmol 1965;73:776-81.
  59. Von Noorden GK, Attiah F. Alternating penalization in the prevention of amblyopia recurrence. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;102:473-5.
  60. Von Noorden GK. Mackensen G. Pursuit movements of normal and amblyoptic eyes – an electromyographic study. II. Pursuit movements of amblyopic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 1962;53:477-87.
  61. Watson PG, Sanac AS, Pickering MS. A comparison of various methods of treatment of amblyopia: A block study. Tr Ophthalmol Soc UK 1985; 104:319-28.
  62. Wick B, Wingard M, Cotter S, et al. Anisometropic amblyopia: Is the patient ever too old to treat? Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(11):866-78.

Building Blocks for Vision Development

Building Blocks for Vision Development

Join us Sunday February 24, 2019 at Western University College of Optometry
At this year’s practicum, Dr. Simonson will share some of her most coveted pearls and strategies for young patients with special needs/developmentally delayed and physical handicaps. She will review normal versus delayed visual development from general motor concepts to development of visual perception and motor output for reproduction. You will gain insight into a systematic approach to vision therapy procedures for these young cases.

Registration Form:

Additional resources:

Chapters visually guided gross motor

Consejo Mexicano De Optometria Funcional (COMOF) 2015

COMOF 2015:

Dr. Simonson presented a 3 hour workshop “Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia” on September 24, 2015.


Taller 1 – Jueves 24 de Septiembre del 2015 16.30 a 19.30

Tratamiento ambliopia Taller

Espanol: /user-files/Tratamiento_ambliopia_taller.pdf

Tratamiento de la Binocularidad para la ambliopia ingles

Notas ingles

Enlaces de sitios web:

Gerull-Labs (g-labs):

Opto App:

Ejercicios Opto

Little Bear Sees, Tap-N-See Now:

Press Lites: Uno:

Dime cuando las luces parpadean al mismo tiempo. Diga ” ahora “

Press Lites: Dos:

Lazy Eye Tetris (en Espanol):

Vivid Vision:

Dr. Simonson presented a 45 minute general lecture “Advanced Amblyopia Treatment” on September 26, 2015.

Asistentes en Gereral – Sabado 26 de Septiembre del 2015 9.45 a 10:30

Tratamiento avanzado para Ambliopia

1. Espanol: Tratamiento avanzado

2. Lecture Slides ingles: /user-files/Tratamiento_avanzado_para_Ambliopia.pdf

3. Lazy Eye Tetris:

4. Emergent VT Equipo


Emily’s Story:

Dr. Fortenbacher at Wow Vision Therapy:

Taylor’s Story:


College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD) Parent Resource Center:
COVD Research:
Optometric Extension Program Foundation (OEPF):
Optometrists Network public
Optometrists Network on Strabismus:
Parents Active for Vision Education (PAVE):
Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group (PEDIG):
Vision Therapy Success Stories:





Summer COVD Study Group

Binocular approaches to Amblyopia Treatment


1. MFBF activities (monocular fixation in a binocular field)

2. Binocular Therapy

3. Video games/iPad Apps/Computer games for amblyopia using dichotic stategies

4. LCD Glasses for treatment




1. Alternatives to Occlusion

2. A Binocular Approach to Amblyopia Therapy

3. Approaches to Amblyopia Therapy

4. Amblyopia Treatment Study 18

Sunday August 23, 2015 at 1:30 p.m.

Fort Collin’s Family Eye Care: 373 W Drake Rd #3, Fort Collins, CO 80526, (970) 223-7150