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Vision Development in Children

Here are some helpful resources to learn more about vision development:

  1. The infantSEE program is a national public health service where a doctor of optometry (OD) performs a no-cost vision assessment of babies between ages of 6-12 months of age. The infantSEE program has great information for parents on their website: infantsee.org
    InfantSee
  2. The American Optometric Association (AOA) has guidelines for testing and treatment of our little pediatric patients. Do you know the first eye examination should take place between ages 6-12 months and the second at age 3? The AOA Parents Center is packed with information. To learn about vision from birth to age 24 months, visit AOA Infant Vision.
    InfantSEE
  3. To learn more about preschool vision development, visit AOA Preschool Vision
  4. Dr. Lynn Hellerstein, a personal friend and colleague blogged about her granddaughter Edina’s Visual development at each age and stage. This great series includes videos, milestones, and observations. Learn more here: https://www.lynnhellerstein.com/category/vision-development-through-edinas-eyes/
  5. All about Vision is a helpful website for families to learn more about children’s vision: https://www.allaboutvision.com/parents/infants.htm

I also highly recommend the following book for parents:

Active Baby, Healthy Brain: 135 Fun Exercises and Activities to Maximize Your Child’s Brain Development from Birth Through Age 5 by Margaret Sassé

infantSEE talk 2020

What does a baby see?

25 fio infant vision 002

Reference: https://lasermom.wordpress.com/2012/06/24/infant-vision-research/

Symptoms of refractive errors vary per individual and may include: – headache – fatigue – eye strain – squinting – blurred or distorted images, up close and/or in the distance

My colleague Sarah Lane, OD, FCOVD has some great videos on helping your child’s sensory (sight, touch, balance, pressure, hearing) and motor (movement of the body) systems development here:

Up and Down

Side to Side

I have hands

 

  • Dr. Jen Simonson, April 2020

Vision training research: Strabismus

Thank you Dr. Derron Lee for sharing this research list about strabismus (Crossed, turned, or wandering eyes):

  1. Altizer LB. The non-surgical treatment of exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1972;22:71-6.
  2. Bair DR. Symposium: Intermittent exotropia, diagnosis and incidence. Am Orthoptic J 1952;2:12-17.
  3. Birnbaum MH. Gross motor control and postural characteristics of strabismic patients. J Am Optom Assoc 1974;45:686-96.
  4. Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182.
  5. Caloroso EE. A sequential strategy for achieving functional binocularity in strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1998;59:378-87.
  6. Caloroso EE, Rouse MW. Clinical management of strabismus. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
  7. Chryssanthou G. Orthoptic management of intermittent exotropia. Am OrthoptJ 1974;24:69-72.
  8. Coffey B, Wick B, Cotter S, et al. Treatment options in intermittent exotropia: A critical appraisal. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(5):386-404.
  9. Colorado Vision Consultants. Manual of esotropia therapy. Boulder: Colorado Vision Consultants, 1985.
  10. Cooper EL, Leyman IA. The management of intermittent exotropia: A comparison of the results of surgical and non-surgical treatment. Am Orthoptic J 1977;27:61-67.
  11. Cooper J. Intermittent exotropia of the divergence excess type. J Am Optom Assoc 1977;48:1261-1273.
  12. Cooper J, Medow N. Major Review: Intermittent exotropia: Basic and divergence excess type. Bin Vis Eye Muscle Surg 1993;8(3):185-216.
  13. Crone RA. Diplopia. New York: American Elsevier Publishing, 1973.
  14. Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV, Stark L. Saccadic intrusions in strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1979;97:1673-9.
  15. Dale RT. Fundamentals of ocular motility and strabismus. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1982.
  16. Daum KM. Equal exodeviations: Characteristics and results of treatment with orthoptics. Aust J Optom 1984; 67(2):53-9.
  17. Day SH, Norcia AM. Infantile esotropia and the developing visual system. In: Greenwald MJ, eds. Pediatric ophthalmology clinics of North America. Philadelphia: WE Saunders, 1990;3:281-7.
  18. Duke-Elder S, Wybar K. Ocular motility and strabismus. In: Duke-Elder S, ed. System of ophthalmology. Vol. 6. St. Louis: Mosby, 1973.
  19. Etting G. Strabismus therapy in private practice: Cure rates after three months of therapy. J Am Optom Assoc 1978; 49:1367-73.
  20. Flax N. The optometric treatment of intermittent divergent strabismus. Proceedings from the Eastern Seaboard V.T. Conference, Washington, DC, 1963, pp. 52-57.
  21. Flax N, Duckman RH. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. J Am Optom Assoc 1978;49:1353-61.
  22. Flax N. Strabismus diagnosis and prognosis. In: Schor C, Ciuffreda KF, eds. Vergence eye movements: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butrerworths, 1983:579-95.
  23. Fletcher CF, Silverman SJ. Strabismus. Part I. A summary of 1110 consecutive cases. Am J Ophthalmol 1966;61:86-94.
  24. Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan, MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990.
  25. Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In: Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Clinton, 1963:197-228.
  26. Flynn JT. Strabismus: A neurodevelopmental approach: Nature’s experiment. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
  27. Forrest EB. Treating infant esotropia: A case report. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1978;55 :463-465.
  28. Frantz KA. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess. J Am Optom Assoc 1990; 61(6):457-62.
  29. Garriott RS, Heyman CL, Rouse MW. Case Report: Role of optometric vision therapy for surgically treated strabismus patients. Optom Vis Sci 1997; 74(4):179-84.
  30. Getz DJ. Strabismus and amblyopia. 2nd ed. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990.
  31. Gillan RU. An analysis of one hundred cases of strabismus treated orthoptically. Br J Ophthalmol 1945;29:420-8.
  32. Gnibor GP. Practical details in the orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol 1934;12:887-901.
  33. Goldrich SG. Optometric therapy of divergence excess strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1980;57:7-14.
  34. Graham PA. Epidemiology of strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:224-31.
  35. Greenwald I. Effective strabismus therapy. Duncan: Optometric Extension Program, 1979.
  36. Gillie JC, Lindsay J. Orthoptics: a discussion of binocular anomalies. London: The Hatton Press Ltd., 1969.
  37. Griffin JR. Binocular anomalies: procedures for vision therapy. 2nd ed. Chicago: Professional Press, 1982.
  38. Hoffman L, Cohen AH, Feuer G, et al. Effectiveness of optometric therapy for strabismus in a private practice. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1970;47:990-5.
  39. Kertesz AE, Kertesz J. Wide-field stimulation in strabismus. AmJ Optom Physiol Opt 1986;63:217-22.
  40. Krumholtz I, FitzGerald DE. Outcome indicators in a strabismic sample treated by vision therapy. J Behav Optom 1999; 10(6):143-6.
  41. Ludlam W. Management of infantile strabismus: research issues and standards of care. J Optom Vis Devel 1993:24:8-14.
  42. Ludlam WM. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1961;38:369-88.
  43. Ludlam WM, Kleinman BI. The long range results of orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1965;42:647-84.
  44. McGraw LG. Guiding strabismus therapy. Santa Ana, California: Vision Extension, 1991.
  45. Parks M. Oculomotility and strabismus. In: Duane TD,ed. Clinical ophthalmology. Hagerstown, MD: Harper & Row, 1979:1.
  46. Pickwell D. Binocular vision anomalies. London: Butterworths, 1984.
  47. Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.
  48. Press LJ. Challenging the Adaption. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.
  49. Press LJ. Topical review: strabismus. J Optom Vis Devel 1991;22:5-20.
  50. Press LJ. Amblyopia and Strabismus. In: Press LJ, Moore BD, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993.
  51. Sanfilippo S, Clahane AC. The effectiveness of orthoptics alone in selected cases of exodeviation: the immediate results and several years later. Am OrthoptJ 1970;20:104-17.
  52. Selenow A, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986; 57(2):132-40.
  53. Stark L, Ciuffreda KJ, Grisham D, Kenyon RV, Kiu J, Polse K. Accommodative dysfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthal Physiol Opt 1984;4:233-244
  54. Von Noorden GK. Binocular vision and ocular motility: theory and management of strabismus. 4th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 1990.
  55. Von Noorden GK. A reassessment of infantile esotropia. Am J Ophthalmol 1988;105:1-10.
  56. Von Noorden GK, Helveston EM. Strabismus: a Decision Making Approach. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994.
  57. Wick B. Visual therapy for small angle esotropia. Am J Optom PhysiolOpt 1974;51:490-6.
  58. Wick B et al. Characteristics and prevalence of exotropia in clinic populations. Poster Program, American Academy of Optometry, Nashville, TN 1990.
  59. Ziegler D, Huff D, Rouse MW. Success in strabismus therapy: a literature review. J Am Optom Assoc 1982;53:979-83.

Vision training research: Amblyopia

Thank you Dr. Derron Lee for sharing this research list: Amblyopia (Lazy Eye)

  1. Amos J. Refractive Amblyopia. In: Amos J ed. Diagnosis and management in vision care. Boston: Butterworths, 1987:372.
  2. American Optometric Association. Optometric clinical practice guideline: Care of the patient with amblyopia. St. Louis: American Optometric Association, 1994:22-3.
  3. Barber A. Amblyopia literature review. In: Barber A, ed. Vision therapist: amblyopia. Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1994;34(4):1-16.
  4. Birnbaum MH, Koslowe K, Sanet R. Success in amblyopic therapy as a function of age. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1977;54:268-275.
  5. Bedell HE, Flom MC. Monocular spatial distortion in strabismic amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1981;20:26-8.
  6. Blakemore C, Van Sluyters RC. Experimental analysis of amblyopia and strabismus. Br J Ophthalmol 1974;58:176-182.
  7. Burian HM. Treatment of functional amblyopia. Sight-saving Rev 1971;41(2):69-81.
  8. Ciuffreda KJ. Visual system plasticity in human amblyopia. In: Hilfer SR, Sheffield JB, eds. Cell and developmental biology of the eye: development of order in the visual system. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986:211-44.
  9. Ciufredda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Abnormal saccadic substitution during small amplitude pursuit tracking in amblyopic eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979;18:506-16.
  10. Ciuffreda KJ, Kenyon RV; Stark L. Different rates of functional recovery of eye movements during orthoptics treatment in an adult amblyope. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1979; 18:213-9.
  11. Ciuffreda KJ, Levi DM, Selenow A. Amblyopia: basic and clinical aspects. Boston: Butterwortb-Heinemann, 1991:64.
  12. CohenAH. Monocular fixation in a binocular field. J Am Opt Assoc 1981,Oct;52(10):801-06.
  13. Cook DL. Optometric alternative to amblyopia occlusion therapy. J Optom Vis Dev 1995,June;26(2):71-75.Dell W. The epidemiology of amblyopia. Probl Optom 1991;3:195-207.
  14. Eibschitz N, Friedman Z, Neuman E. Comparative results of amblyopia treatment. Metab Ophthalmol 1978;2:111-2.
  15. Eiden SB. Vision therapy helps adult amblyopes. Rev Optom 1982,Sept;119(9):62.
  16. Flax N. Common sense management of amblyopia: Amblyopes are people, not eyes. J Optom Vis Dev 1995,June;26(2)53-56.
  17. Flom MC. Issues in the clinical management of binocular anomalies. In Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW, eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990;219.
  18. Flom MC. Treatment of binocular anomalies of vision. In Hirsch MJ, Wick RE, eds. Vision of children. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1963;210-212
  19. Flom MC, Kirschen DG, Bedell HE. Control of unsteady, eccentric fixation in amblyopic eyes by auditory feedback of eye position. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1980;19:1371-91.
  20. Flom MC, Neumaier RW. Prevalence of amblyopia. Am J Optom Arch Am Acad Optom 1966;73:732-51.
  21. Flom MC, Wick B. A model for treating binocular anomalies. In: Rosenbloom AA, Morgan MW; eds. Principles and practice of pediatric optometry. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1990:257.
  22. Flynn JT, Cassady JC. Current trends in amblyopia therapy. Ophthalmology 1978;85:428-450.
  23. Francois J, James M. Comparative study of amblyopic treatment. Am Orthopt J 1955;5:61-4.
  24. Garcia RP, Richman JE. Stereopsis in an amblyopic small angle esotrope. J Am Optom Assoc 1985;56:400-404.
  25. Garzia, RP. The efficacy of visual training in amblyopia: A literature review. Am J Optom Physiol Opt 1987;64:393-404.
  26. Getz DG. Strabismus and amblyopia. rev. ed, Santa Ana, California: Optometric Extension Program, 1990.
  27. Girard LJ, Fletcher MC, Tomlinson E, et al. Results of pleoptic treatment of suppression amblyopia. Am Orthopt J 1962;12:12-31.
  28. Gortz H. The corrective treatment of amblyopia with eccentric fixation. Am J OphthalmoI 1960;49:1315-21.
  29. Greenwald I. Brock: A binocular approach to amblyopia therapy. J Optom Vis Dev 1995, June; 26(2):62-67.
  30. Gregersen E. Occlusion treatment of squint amblyopia in young adults. Acta Ophthalmol 1966;44:166-8.
  31. Haldi B, Mitchelson JE. Amblyopia therapy: Expected results from standard techniques. Am Orthopt J 1981;31:19-28.
  32. Ingram RM, Rogers S, Walker C. Occlusion and amblyopia. Br Orthopt J 1977;34:11-22.
  33. Jablonski M, Tomlinson E. A new look at pleoptics. Ophthalmology 1979;86:2112-4.
  34. Kupfer C. Treatment of amblyopia ex anopsia in adults. Am J Ophthalmol 1957;43:918-22.
  35. Lithander J, Sjöstrand J. Anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia in the age group 2 years and above: A prospective study of the results of treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 1991; 75:111-6.
  36. London R, Silver JL. Diagnosis of amblyopia: Emphasis on nonacuity factors. Problems in Optometry 1991;3:258-275.
  37. Mayweg S, Massie HH. A preliminary report of the more recent methods of treatment of amblyopia, especially when associated with eccentric fixation in cases of strabismus. Br. J Ophthalmol 1958;42:257-69.
  38. Nawratzki I. Treatment of amblyopia. Ir J Med Sci 1972; 8:1475-9.
  39. Oliver M, Neumann R, Chaimovitch Y, et al. Compliance and results of treatment for amblyopia in children more than 8 years old. Am J Ophthalmol 1986; 102:340-5.
  40. Peli E. Normal stereo acuity despite anisometropic amblyopia. J Am Optom Assoc 1983;54:919-921.
  41. Porter EE. Treatment of amblyopia. Am Orthopt J 1962; 12:157.61.
  42. Pratt-Johnson JA, Tillson G. Management of strabimus and amblyopia: A practical guide. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1994.
  43. Press LJ. Amblyopia. J Optom Vis Dev 1988;19:2-15.
  44. Press LJ. Amblyopia: A Microcosm of Visual Disorders. In: Press LJ. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997.
  45. Press LJ. Amblyopia and strabismus. In: Press L, Moore B, eds. Clinical pediatric optometry. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993:265-73.
  46. Press LJ. Topical review of the literature: amblyopia. J Optom Vis Devel 1988;19:2-15.
  47. Reinecke RD, Simons K. A new stereoscopic test for amblyopia screening. Am J Ophthalmol 1974;78:714.
  48. Ross E, Murray AL, Stead S. Prevalence of amblyopia in grade 1 school children in Saskatoon. Can J Public Health 1977; 68:491-3.
  49. Rutstein RP, Fuhr PS. Efficacy and stability of amblyopia therapy. Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(10):747-54.
  50. Saulles H. Treatment of refractive amblyopia in adults. J Am Optom Assoc 1987; 58(12):959-60.
  51. Schapero M. Amblyopia. Philadelphia: Chilton, 1971.
  52. Schor C. A directional impairment of eye movement control in strabismus amblyopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1975; 15:692-7.
  53. Schor CM, Flom MC. Eye position control and visual acuity in strabismus amblyopia. In: Lennerstrand G, Bach-y-Rita P, Collins CC, et al, eds. Basic mechanisms of ocular motility and their clinical manifestations. New York: Pergamon Press, 1975.
  54. Selenow A, Ciufredda KJ. Vision function recovery during orthoptic therapy in an adult esotropic amblyope. J Am Optom Assoc 1986;57:132-40.
  55. Simmers AJ, Gray LS, McGraw PV, Winn B. Functional visual loss in amblyopia and the effect of occlusion therapy. Inv Ophthal Vis Sci 1999; 40(12):2859-71.
  56. Spitzer NC. Development, regeneration, and plasticity. In: Cohen MJ, Strumwasser F, eds. Comparative neurobiology: modes of communication in the nervous system. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1985.
  57. Sullivan M. Results in the treatment of anisometropic amblyopia. Orthopt J 1975:37-42.
  58. Von Noorden GK Occlusion therapy in amblyopia with eccentric fixation, Arch Ophthalmol 1965;73:776-81.
  59. Von Noorden GK, Attiah F. Alternating penalization in the prevention of amblyopia recurrence. Am J Ophthalmol 1986;102:473-5.
  60. Von Noorden GK. Mackensen G. Pursuit movements of normal and amblyoptic eyes – an electromyographic study. II. Pursuit movements of amblyopic patients. Am J Ophthalmol 1962;53:477-87.
  61. Watson PG, Sanac AS, Pickering MS. A comparison of various methods of treatment of amblyopia: A block study. Tr Ophthalmol Soc UK 1985; 104:319-28.
  62. Wick B, Wingard M, Cotter S, et al. Anisometropic amblyopia: Is the patient ever too old to treat? Optom Vis Sci 1992; 69(11):866-78.

College of Optometrists in Vision Development & Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association Issue Joint Recommendation for Optometric Evaluation Following Brain Injury

Brain injury can affect a person in many ways, extending from physical limitations to changes in perception and cognition. In the United States, an estimated 1.7 million people sustain a TBI each year1, with about 75 percent of them a result of concussions or other forms of mild traumatic brain injury2. “Studies show that at least 50 percent of TBI patients suffer from visual dysfunctions, with one such study3 finding a 90 percent incidence of post-trauma visual complications, such as blurred vision, sensitivity to light, reading difficulty, headaches with visual tasks, and difficulties with eye movements,” says NORA president Susan Daniel, O.D. “About two-thirds of stroke survivors have visual impairment that typically relates to diminished central or peripheral vision, eye movement abnormalities, or visual perceptual defects4,” she adds.

“Clinicians regularly assess a concussion or other acquired brain injury to the symptoms that an individual manifests at the time of injury but, unfortunately, vision-related problems are often overlooked during initial evaluation,” says COVD President, Dr. Christine Allison. “Some symptoms, like visual discomfort and vision-mediated functional difficulties such as slowed reading and compromised attention, may not be present until days, weeks, or even longer following the incident. The consequences of these occurrences may also include cognitive problems such as headache, difficulty thinking, memory problems, attention deficits, mood swings and frustration, along with motor and sensory issues leading to impaired academic, work, and sport performance.”

Given the high rate of visual symptoms and known impact, both COVD and NORA urge healthcare professionals to consider the possibility that a patient’s ocular or visual signs or symptoms may have been a result of a brain injury and refer him/her to an optometrist who has special expertise in the assessment and treatment of visual disturbances associated with damage to the central nervous system. “Doctors of Optometry who have been educated and trained to diagnose and manage ocular dysfunctions and visual processing deficits related to brain injuries will examine not only the visual issues, but also other subtle factors involved in the complex visual process, such as posture, spatial awareness, visual memory, and motor output — all areas that can have wide-ranging effects on daily activities and on quality of life,” explains Dr. Allison. “Left untreated, they can have serious consequences,” she warns.

Both COVD and NORA stress the importance of an interdisciplinary, integrated team approach in the diagnosis and rehabilitation of patients with concussions, stroke or other neurological deficits. “When a person has a brain injury, often a single-approach to rehabilitation is not enough to address all of his/her needs,” says Daniel. “An integrated team approach that incorporates the training and expertise of a variety of professionals can play a vital role in rehabilitation.” In addition to optometrists, rehabilitation team members may include such specialists as neurologists, physical medicine and rehab physicians, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, chiropractors, neuropsychologists, audiologists, and ophthalmologists.

Both COVD and NORA offer resources to help patients and caregivers find the help they need following a concussion as well as tools and resources for optometrists and other healthcare professionals. Both associations also feature doctor locaters on their websites for access to providers who specialize in brain-injury related visual problems. For more information, visit them at www.covd.org and www.noravisionrehab.org.

References

1. Faul M, Xu L, Wald MM, Coronado VG. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations and Deaths 2002–2006. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010.

2. Report to Congress on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Steps to Prevent a Serious Public Health Problem. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2003.

3. Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, Rutner D, Suchoff IB, Han ME, Craig S. Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis. Optometry 2007;78(4):155-61.

4. Rowe F.J. Stroke survivors’ views and experiences on impact of visual impairment. Brain and Behavior, 2017; e00778 DOI: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/brb3.778

Dr. Simonson will be lecturing in Mexico

Dr. Simonson will be participating in a vision training conference in Monterrey, Mexico in February 2018. This meeting is coordinated by COMOF – Consejo Mexicano de Optometria Funcional (http://comof.mx/). She is excited to exchange ideas with her colleagues in Mexico.

Mi Vision Doble

Optometrists and Traumatic Brain Injury

Join us on May 8th for a talk about Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and the role Optometrists play in prevention and treatment. This 1-hour continuing education event will be headed by our very own Optometrists: Dr. Simonson, OD, FCOVD and Dr. Talaber, OD, who will provide knowledge and confidence to diagnose and treat vision conditions related to TBI.

RSVP via phone: 303-443-2257 or email: bouldervt@yahoo.com

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Optometrists Change Lives – Vision Rehabilitation for Preschoolers

This presentation is part of the Optometrists Change Lives student program. The goal is to educate students how to both assess and develop visual skills in our youngest patients.

017 BVVT round1

Due to falls and accidents, very young children are often affected by concussion. This can greatly impact their vision development. The goal of this presentation is to familiarize students with age-appropriate assessment and treatment strategies. Dr. Simonson will be presenting ways to adapt familiar techniques to this age group using photos, videos and live demonstrations.

025 BVVT round1

For student membership in the Optometric Extension Program Foundation:

Send your Name, School, Graduation Year, and Preferred e-mail address to robin.benoit@oep.org.

To link to Dr. Simonson’s Pinterest Page:

https://www.pinterest.com/drjsimonson/vision-therapy/

Group